Developing a Conceptual Framework using Virtual Reality and UAV technologies, for Cultural and Heritage Virtual Tourism.

Project Leader: Dr. Ravindra Kumar Perumal

Research Members:

  1. Dr. Siti Azreena
  2. Dr. Stephen Poon


Virtual Reality

VR is one of the most common forms of XR and is generally defined as a computer-generated experience whereby the user is transported into a simulated virtual world (Uhomoibhi et al., 2019). There are various levels of immersive technology that exist within VR, classified into non, semi and fully immersive systems (Fox et al., 2009). In non-immersive VR, users do not have a virtual surround view of the simulated environment, whereas a semi-immersive VR experience offers a bigger view of the 3D generated virtual world, mainly using a large screen or an HMD/Goggles. Fully immersive virtual environments are often implemented using a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE), which is intended for several users to be immersed at the same time (Pallot et al., 2017) using multiple large-screen devices, with projectors directed to between three and six of the surfaces of a room-sized cube to offer a complete (3D) view of the virtual environment and commonly combined with other devices such as gloves, touch screens, wands or controllers.

Virtual Tourism

The term virtual tour has several interpretations and thus lacks a generally accepted definition. However, it can be described as “a simulation of an existing location that is composed of a sequence of video images’’ (Osman, Wahab, and Ismail 2009, p, 173). The simulation is set up by a sequence of videos or pictures and is accompanied by text descriptions, audio guides, or sound effects. The simulated location, with all of its associated effects, is set up with the intention of authentically re-creating the real site experience (Aguilera, Alonso, and Gomez 2014; Spielmann and Mantonakis 2018). As can be inferred from the work of Koutsoudis, Arnaoutoglou, and Chamzas (2007), for the most part, VTs are experienced through the worldwide web using a computer, through which a visitor can see and interact with a simulated environment using a monitor and a mouse, respectively. Although, as Barbieri, Bruno, and Muzzupappa (2017) explain, VTs also may be experienced using other advanced technologies such as virtual reality.

Challenges Faced by the Tourism Industry in Malaysia

Interestingly, during the COVID-19 crisis drone potential has been further harnessed, using the people free nature of the technology to modify current service delivery to improve safety and capacity levels. It could be argued that COVID-19 has increased technological advancement in many areas and that perhaps drones represent a revolution in how we provide quality sight-seeing service or experience especially at UNESCO declared heritage sites and destinations such as Penang, Malaysia.

Design and Development of Drone Technology in Vertical Farming

Project Leader: Dr. Arun Seeralan Balakrishnan

Research Members:

  1. Mr. Vijayaraj Vijayasingam
  2. Dr. Stephen Poon Tai Fook
  3. Mr. Zayan Rameez – TP048951 (BEng student)


Vertical farming is the practice of producing food on vertically inclined surfaces. Instead of farming vegetables and other foods on a single level, such as in a field or a greenhouse, this method produces foods in vertically stacked layers commonly integrated into other structures like a skyscraper, shipping container or repurposed warehouse. (Rick Leblanc, 2020).

The term “drone” usually refers to any unpiloted aircraft. Sometimes referred to as “Unmanned Aerial Vehicles” (UAVs), these crafts can carry out an impressive range of tasks, ranging from military operations to package delivery. UAV/Drone development is an emerging field in technology and innovation with important implications for industry and community use.

Vertical Farms are now promoted as a source of sustainable food supply for urban areas. One of the key advantages is the potential for automation in a controlled environment.

The process of utilizing various technological innovations to upgrade and automate the many processes of farming is known as farm automation. This technique is meant to ease the labor and time-intensive processes of agriculture that challenge farmers around the world. With the help of farm automation, farming and agricultural technology innovations, farmers can acquire more time and resources to redirect into their properties. (Pinduoduo, 2021)